Equipment that utilizes the piezoelectric effect of PZT-based ceramic elements can achieve nanopositioning with practically unlimited resolution. piezosystem jena is one of the world’s leading companies in this technology. A controller sends analog signals to apply an electric field of certain voltage to the ceramic. The result is a change in length of the bi-polar elements which depends upon the signal strength. piezosystem jena makes use of this effect to design positioning equipment with exceptionally high resolution.